ID10 – BEATS (BEAmline for Tomography at SESAME) beamline

Tab

beats

 

Welcome to the BEATS (BEAmline for Tomography at SESAME) beamline.

The BEATS beamline is located at port I10 of the SESAME storage ring and operates a hard X-ray full-field radiography and micro Computed Tomography (CT) station. Hard x-ray imaging can be applied in numerous scientific areas.

The layout of BEATS is inspired by TOMCAT, the tomography beamline at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). BEATS is optimized for absorption and phase contrast X-ray radiography and tomography.

The BEATS beamline was constructed with generous funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme. It was built and commissioned by a consortium of leading research facilities in the Middle East (SESAME and The Cyprus Institute), well-established European synchrotron radiation facilities and high-energy laboratories with decades-long experience in synchrotron radiation research and technology DESY (Germany), Elettra (Italy), ESRF (France), INFN (Italy) and PSI (Switzerland), and more recently-founded synchrotron laboratories ALBA-CELLS (Spain) and SOLARIS (Poland).

BEATS has been opened to users in the second 2023 call for proposals for which the deadline for the submission of applications is 30 September 2023.

The layout of BEATS is inspired by TOMCAT, the tomography beamline of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) [1]. The total length of the BEATS beamline is 45.3 m. The insertion device is a 2.9 T 3-Pole Wiggler (Ecritical = 12 kEv) that provides photon energies well above 80 keV. The beamline can be operated in two modalities: filtered white beam, and monochromatic beam using a Double Multilayer Monochromator (DMM).

 

des1
BEATS beamline layout

The usable beam size at the sample position is 70 x 15 mm2, with estimated flux as high as 1×1010 Ph/s/mm2 in 0.1% of the source bandwidth (white beam configuration).

 

X-ray source

The BEATS photon source is a 3-pole wiggler of 2.9 T peak magnetic field, operating in a SESAME short straight section at a variable gap. The design of the insertion device is compact and gives low multipolar effects on the SESAME storage ring optics, while as well reducing the attractive forces between the magnetic structures leading to minor mechanical constraints [2]. The critical energy of the X-ray source is 12 keV, and the energy spectrum reaches 100 keV.

 

beats
(Left) BEATS 3-pole wiggler installed in the SESAME storage ring. (Right) Profile of the vertical component of the magnetic field along the longitudinal axis of the 3PW device, for a gap of 11.15 mm. The red line corresponds to the experimental data, the solid black line to the theoretical model (RADIA simulation), and the dashed black line stands for the difference between the two curves magnified by a factor 10.

 

BEATS 3-POLE WIGGLER PARAMETERS
Type 3-pole wiggler
Minimum gap     11.15 mm
Peak field    2.9 T
Critical energy     12.0 keV
Magnetic length     0.41 m
Manufacturer   Kyma S.p.A. (Italy)

 

Flux
X-ray photon flux emitted by the BEATS 3-pole wiggler at different magnetic gaps

 

Front-end

The BEATS front-end was designed taking the standard configuration for bending magnet Front-Ends at ALBA, adapting it to the particularities of SESAME [2]. The design includes: (i) a fixed mask to protect the downstream elements and to define the user aperture, (ii) a photon shutter, (iii) a fast closing valve triggered by gauges installed on the beamline side for protection of the accelerator’s vacuum, (iv) a system of primary slits (refurbished from ID19 beamline at ESRF), (v) a set of beam attenuators with 5 independent axes, and (vi) a single-block Bremsstrahlung stopper. All power absorbing elements have been dimensioned to withstand the power delivered by a stored electron beam of up to 400 mA.
Most of the FE units were manufactured by JJ X-ray A/S (Denmark).

Optics

The main optical component of BEATS is a Double Multilayer Monochromator (DMM) placed outside of the SESAME storage ring tunnel in a dedicated Optics Hutch [3]. The DMM allows to select a photon energy between 8 and 50 keV with an energy bandwidth of approximately 2%. 500-mm-long mirrors allow to preserve the usable beam height even when working at high energies. The design is optimized to guarantee stability and minimize vibrations of the two optical elements. The mirrors can be completely removed from the beam path, allowing operation in white-beam mode.

 

optics
View of the BEATS optics hutch and Double Multilayer Monochromator (left).

 

BEATS MONOCHROMATOR PARAMETERS
Distance from source (1st mirror) 15.165 [m]
Max. Beam size @ 1st mirror 29 mm × 6 mm (Hor. × Ver.)
Offset (variable) Min. 4.0 – Max. 18.0 [mm]
Substrate dimension 500 mm × 70 mm × 60 mm
Distance between ML centers 510 mm
Theta (Bragg angle) -0.5 – 2.5 [deg]
Bragg resolution 0.5 µrad
Energies 8 – 50 keV
Max. power on 1st mirror 133 W
Manufacturer CINEL Scientific Instruments S.r.l. (Italy)

 

BEATS MULTILAYERS  STRIPE 1 STRIPE 2
Coating [W/B4C]100 – d = 2.5 nm  [Ru/B4C]65 – d = 4.0 nm
d-spacing 2.5 nm 4 nm
d-spacing gradient along Z 3.41 % (0.00682 % / mm) 3.52 % (0.00704 % / mm)
N. bilayers 100  65
Energies 20 – 50 keV 8 – 22 keV
dE/E 1.8 %  2.4 %
Theta (Bragg angle)  0.292 – 0.728 [deg] 0.42 – 1.159 [deg]
Filling factor Γ 0.5 0.5
Manufacturer ESRF Multilayer Laboratory (France)

 

Experimental station

The BEATS experimental hutch covers a length of 9 m. It comprises two sets of beam-defining slits, a CVD diamond window separating vacuum and air sections of the beamline, and the tomography endstation. The sample is mounted at a distance of 43 m from the X-ray photon source.

Endstation #1

The beamline endstation #1 is composed of a sample air-bearing tomography manipulator that was previously at the TOMCAT beamline of SLS [1], and of indirect X-ray detectors installed on a common granite optical table. Object pixel sizes in the range from 13.0 μm down to 0.65 μm are achieved. The usable beam size at the sample position is 70 x 15 mm2

 

endstation
(Left) BEATS tomography endstation #1. (Right) Detail of sample mounted on the tomography rotation stage.

 

Detectors         

  DETECTOR 1 DETECTOR 2 DETECTOR 3
Type White-beam medium resolution detector White-beam Twin microscope Monochromatic microscope
Manufacturer ESRF (France) Optique Peter (France) Optique Peter (France)
Lens type Hasselblad H system  Mitutoyo M Plan Apo(Radiation hardened)  Olympus PLAPO/UPLAPO
Magnification 0.5×; 1×; 2× 5×; 7.5×; 10× 10×; 20×
Available voxel size (with PCO edge 5.5) 
 
13 – 3.25 μm 1.3 – 0.65 μm 0.65 – 0.33 μm

 

Cameras

  CAMERA 1 CAMERA 2
Sensor type  sCMOS - Mono CMOS - Mono
Manufacturer  PCO (Germany) Teledyne FLIR (US)
Model edge 5.5 Oryx 10GigE
Megapixels 5.5 7.1
Sensor size 2560 × 2160 3208 × 2200
Pixel size 6.5 μm 4.5 μm
Max frame rate (full frame)  100 fps 112 fps
Shutter Rolling / Global  Global
Exposure time  500 μs - 2 s 10 μs - 30 s
Bit-depth  16 bit 8 bit / 16 bit
ADC 16 bit 8 bit / 10 bit / 12 bit
Dynamic range  88.6 dB 71.7 dB

 

[1]    M. Stampanoni et al., “TOMCAT: A beamline for TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 879, no. 1, pp. 848–851, Jan. 2007,  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2436193.

[2]    J. Campmany et al., “Design of Front End and a 3-Pole-Wiggler as a Photon Source for BEATS Beamline at SESAME,” in Proc. IPAC’21, in International Particle Accelerator Conference. Campinas, Brazil: JACoW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland, Aug. 2021, pp. 324–326. https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2021-MOPAB086.

[3]    G. Iori et al., “Design and Ray-Tracing of the BEATS Beamline of SESAME,” presented at the 11th Mechanical Engineering Design of Synchrotron Radiation Equipment and Instrumentation (MEDSI’20), Chicago, IL, USA, 24-29 July 2021, JACOW Publishing, Geneva, Switzerland, Oct. 2021, pp. 246–248. https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-MEDSI2020-WEPA10.

 

Beamline Resolving Power
2 * 10-2 [deltaE/E] @ 20000 [eV]
 
Beamline Energy Range
8 - 100 [keV]
 
Max Flux On Sample
4.8 * 1013 [ph/s] @ 20 [keV]
 
Spot Size On Sample Hor
0 - 72 [mm]
 
Spot Size On Sample Vert
0 - 15 [mm]
 
Divergence Hor
0 - 1.8 [mrad]
 
Divergence Vert
0 - 0.4 [mrad]
 

3PW

Type
Wiggler
 
Source Divergence Sigma
X = 3130 [urad], Y = 93 [urad]
 
Source Size Sigma
X = 840 [um], Y = 14 [um]
 
Source Spectral Flux
1 * 1013 [ph/s/0.1%bw] @ 20 [eV]
 
Energy Range
5 - 100 [keV]
 
Total Power
1 * 103 [W]
 
Number Of Periods
1
 
 

DMM

Energy Range
8 - 50 [keV]
 
Type
Double Multilayer Monochromator
 
Resolving Power
3 * 10-2 [deltaE/E] @ 20000 [eV]
 

Endstation #1 - PSI TOMCAT

Description
Microtomography sample endstation
 
Endstation Operative
Yes
 

MANIPULATOR OR SAMPLE STAGE

Description
Stampanoni, M., et al. "TOMCAT: a beamline for TO mographic M icroscopy and C oherent r A diology experimen T s." AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 879. No. 1. American Institute of Physics, 2007.
 
Degrees Of Freedom
6
 
Translator Stages
5
 
Positioning Precision
X = 0.1 [um], Y = 0.1 [um], Z = 0.1 [um]
 
Range Of Movement
X = 50 [mm], Z = 50 [mm]
 

Low magnification white-beam detector

Type
Indirect X-Ray camera
 
Description
Scintillating screen coupled with tandem photographic lenses (0.5x to 2x magnification) and air-cooled CMOS sensor
 
Pixel Size
X = 4.5 [um], Y = 4.5 [um]
 
Array Size
X = 3208 [pixel], Y = 2200 [pixel]
 

DETECTION

Detected Particle
Photon
 

White-beam double objective microscope

Type
Indirect X-Ray microscope
 
Description
Twin microscope consisting of scintillating screen, two interchangeable long-working-distance microscope objective lenses (5x to 10x magnification) and a water-cooled sCMOS camera
 
Pixel Size
X = 0.65 [um], Y = 0.65 [um]
 
Array Size
X = 2560 [pixel], Y = 2160 [pixel]
 

DETECTION

Detected Particle
Photon
 

For information on how to prepare your experiment and analyze your data visit the BEATS User Manual.

Experiments at BEATS can produce up to 2 Terabytes of experimental data per day, with a peak throughput of 1.1 Gigabyte of data per second. The beamline data acquisition and computing layout follows a network topology and design principles established at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) [1]. All BEATS detector cameras are connected to dedicated backend DAQ servers located in the SESAME server room through Camera Link® HS or 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces. The TomoScan Python module is adapted and used as tomography DAQ sub-system. TomoScan is a unified Python module developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS, Chicago, USA) to collect computed tomography data. It uses PyEpics: the library for EPICS Channel Access for Python developed by the GSECARS team at Argonne National Laboratory and allows to control several cameras and data acquisition systems via EPICS areaDetector. The streaming process of detector data is managed through the asynchronous messaging library ZeroMQ (ZMQ) by the EPICS areaDetector plugin ADZMQ developed at the Swiss Light Source — Paul Scherrer Institut. The ZMQ subscriber was developed at SESAME as part of the SESAME Experimental Data writer (SEDWriter) to handle the creation of HDF5 files according to the Scientific Data Exchange guidelines [2].

Tomographic reconstructions are performed on a dedicated hybrid CPU/GPU cluster. All experimental data is stored on a 0.51 Petabyte GPFS Short Term Storage in compliance with the SESAME Experimental Data Management Policy.

 

data beats
Computing infrastructure for the BEATS beamline control and data acquisition systems. Reproduced from [1].

 

[1]    G. Iori, S. Matalgah, C. Chrysostomou, A. Al-Dalleh, and M. Alzu’bi, “Data Acquisition and Analysis at the X-ray Computed Tomography Beamline of SESAME,” in 2021 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT), Nov. 2021, pp. 134–139. https://doi.org/10.1109/JEEIT53412.2021.9634151.

[2] F. De Carlo, D. G ̈ursoy, F. Marone, et al., “Scientific data exchange: A schema for HDF5-based storage of raw and analyzed data,” J Synchrotron Rad, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1224–1230, Nov. 1, 2014, Number: 6 Publisher: International Union of Crystallography, ISSN: 1600-5775. https://doi.org/10.1107/S160057751401604X.
 

2024 (2), 2023 (2), 2021 (3), 2020 (1), All (8)

2024

  1. Alrecon: computed tomography reconstruction web application based on Solara
    Open Research Europe, Vol. 4 - 54, pp. (2024)
    G. Iori, I. Foudeh, M. Alzubi, M. Almohammad, S. Matalgah
    doi: 10.12688/openreseurope.16863.1

  2. Non-destructive 3D exploration of silicate glass corrosion: a combined multiscale approach from the macro to the nanoscale
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. , pp. (2024)
    G. Franceschin, R. Zanini, G. Iori, E. Longo, G. Divitini, G. Tromba, A. Traviglia
    doi: 10.1039/d3cp05221d


2023
  1. An FEA Investigation of the Vibration Response of the BEATS Detector Stage
    R&D Journal of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 39, pp. 44-52 (2023)
    F. Mokoena, M. Bhamjee, S. Connell, P. Van Vaerenbergh, G. Iori, A. Kaprolat
    doi: 10.17159/2309-8988/2023/v39a5

  2. Ciclope: micro Computed Tomography to Finite Elements
    JOSS - Journal of Open Source Software, Vol. 8 - 84, pp. 4952 (2023)
    G. Iori, G. Crimi, E. Schileo, F. Taddei, G. Fraterrigo, M. Pani
    doi: 10.21105/joss.04952


2021
  1. Design of Front End and a 3-Pole-Wiggler as a Photon Source for BEATS Beamline at SESAME
    IPAC - International Particle Accelerator Conference, Vol. , pp. 324-326 (2021)
    J. Campmany, M. Najdawi Al, M. Attal, I. Cudin, S. Guiducci, G. Iori, J. Marcos, P. Van Vaerenbergh
    doi: 10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2021-MOPAB086

  2. Data Acquisition and Analysis at the X-ray Computed Tomography Beamline of SESAME
    2021 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT), Vol. , pp. 134-139 (2021)
    G. Iori, S. Matalgah, C. Chrysostomou, A. Al-Dalleh, M. Alzu'bi
    doi: 10.1109/JEEIT53412.2021.9634151

  3. Development of a Linear Fast Shutter for BM05 at ESRF and BEATS at SESAME
    MEDSI - Mechanical Engineering Design of Synchrotron Radiation Equipment and Instrumentation, Vol. , pp. 229-231 (2021)
    C. Muñoz Pequeño, J.M. Clement, P. Thevenau, P. Van Vaerenbergh
    doi: 10.18429/JACoW-MEDSI2020-WEOB03


2020
  1. Design and Ray-Tracing of the BEATS Beamline of SESAME, Conference: MEDSI2020, Chicago (US) 26/07/2021 (2020)
    G. Iori, A. Kaprolat, I. Cudin, J. Reyes-Herrera, M. AL-Najdawi, M. AL-Shehab, M. Altissimo, P. Van Vaerenbergh, T. Kolodziej
    doi: 10.18429/JACoW-MEDSI2020-WEPA10


Gianluca IORI
Supervisor of BEATS Beamline Team
Email: gianluca.iori@sesame.org.jo
Work Tel: +962 5 351 1348  (Ext. 350)

Philipp HANS
BEATS Beamline Scientist
Email: philipp.hans@sesame.org.jo
Work Tel: +962 5 351 1348  (Ext. 276)